Both large companies and any Internet site have servers that allow data transfer through a complex system. These house the register of operations.
Hostings are known as Data Centers. Which are physical spaces where there is a large number of computers that have a high level of security, cooling and infrastructure.
So that you know in detail what this is about, we have prepared this article for you. You can find what it is used for, what are the objectives and all the components necessary for its design.
What is a Data Center of a computer network and what is it for?
A Data Center, also known in our country as "Data center", is a space where different hardware equipment and physical components that are necessary for the processing of digital information are stored. Although it is true that there are virtual servers and they have a lower maintenance cost, they are not so used when choosing greater data security.
DCs keep a company's operations in one place and they get the guarantee that they are safe. This is because they have a optimal environment and network design tailored to the needs of operations.
To create a Data Center it is necessary to take into account some factors before its creation. For example, your installation cost, maintenance labor, electricity-related infrastructure, and any other natural or intentional hazards that may exist at that location.
What are the objectives of a data center in a computer network?
The objectives that a Data Center network must meet are:
- Scalability: Data Centers must have an architecture design that allows the increased work capacity without the need to compromise operations and normal operation. For this, it is necessary to have sufficient equipment and an optimal installation.
- Flexibility: this objective refers to the possibility of adapt the Data Center with the technological and commercial needs of customers that host your data on servers. This means that the prices and contractual terms must be dynamic to adapt to the current situation of the companies.
- High availability: This is perhaps one of the most sought after objectives by customers. The Data Centers must offer a continuous service to usersIn other words, they must not be out of service at any time. To achieve this, it is necessary to have a network design that allows different components to act as clones to impersonate the activities of the main servers when they are out of service.
- Performance: data centers must be fully exploited. This means that the performance will be better when it can be implemented and maximized in the combination of having the right number of servers in relation to the resources managed in the DC.
- Energy efficiency: It is one of the issues that most concerns the owners of Data Centers. This is because the optimal temperature, so that the computers that work in the physical space do not present faults, it is between 21 and 23 degrees. So refrigeration is an important objective that must be met in order not to have as much electricity consumption. In addition, certain standards must be established so that all components can function optimally with the better energy efficiency. For this, it is necessary to acquire servers and other types of latest technology hardware.
History and evolution of data centers How have they changed over the years?
While Herman Hollerith's first drilling machine was known as the first data automation in the late 19th century, it wasn't until 1946 when it was created for the United States Army, the system called Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computing. This model is considered as the first computer with general processes. In 1960 the first IBM System data processing units were created, which produced the first jump to process information in large quantities.
This made 11 years later, the company Intel Present your 4004 model, with which the software could be customized to integrate with different functions on any device that belonged to the network. At the end of the 70s the first LAN network was created with 255 computers at the Chase Bank in Manhattan. Data transfer could go up to 2.5 Mb / s, thus becoming the first data center service as we know it today.
Do not forget about the first personal computers that appeared on the market in 1981. With these PCs, file sharing between different users began, making it possible to create more efficient LAN networks. In these structures, the client computers that could access the storage of another server PC stood out. From the 90's, the companies chose to have the data centers in physical places near them.
This generated that, from the appearance of connectivity through Internet, this operation becomes more efficient. So the industries allocated more resources to obtain much larger rooms. The North American company VMWare started selling their product Workstation, which had similarities with the Apple Virtual PC and was intended to meet the needs of companies. A short time later the server model is launched ESX, with which it avoids that the adjacent OS is necessary.
Years later, tools from Amazon Web Services, Sun Microsystems and Facebook's Open Compute Project appeared.. These began to improve the technical specifications that helped increase the efficiency in practice of data transfer between network components. Currently the Data center they work according to the client's ability to support the demands through the cloud. This does improve infrastructure costs for all participants.
Components and equipment necessary for the data center What devices are needed?
The components necessary to build a Data Center are:
- Physical unit for compact station: This element is necessary to place all the components of the Data center. The system of noise and humidity insulation, security against thefts, fires and natural disasters. In addition, it should be located in an area as cold as possible so that the equipment works better and it does not require as much electrical energy consumption to cool the servers.
- Transformer: It is necessary to have an electrical system that regulates the voltage of the energy and maintains it at the optimum level for the devices. You also need to have support equipment in case of power outage so that they are not out of order.
- Electric board: as well as the transformer, it is also important to have a proper electrical installation so you can transmit the correct voltage and do not damage the equipment. In addition, different circuits must be incorporated so that, in the event of a power failure, it does not allow the rest of the installation to break down.
- UPS: these teams work as batteries that make up the electrical circuit. In the event of a power cut, the equipment connected to this device will not suffer any interruption due to the remaining load of the Uninterruptible Power Supply.
- PDU: the work of these components is distribute energy through the power outlet to which the network equipment located in the racks.
- Video surveillance circuit: The installation of cameras, monitors and any other element that can help control the correct operation of the equipment installed in the Data center. It is also used to prevent theft and to be able to respond to natural disasters.
- False floor: also called a raised floor. The function is create a chamber between the firm floor and this sheet of plates on which the racks and other components are installed. This helps to send all the wiring across the floor and to be able to access them in an easy way.
- Access control to restricted areas: mechanisms must be created to control that Unauthorized persons can access sensitive places of manipulation and equipment breakdown. Controls can be created using magnetic cards or fingerprints.
- Racks: thanks to you can stack equipmentThese cabinets in which the servers are installed help to keep the place in order and save a lot of space.
- Wiring by structure: This is not a minor topic. since the cables must be installed correctly, tidily and neatly to connect the different equipment. The exact use of the twisted pair cables to be used must be considered.
- Servers, other computers and switches: nothing would make sense if the computer equipment that must be connected to each other is not used to provide the data transfer service continuously. For this, it is necessary that these servers have the latest technology and consume the least amount of energy possible. In addition, you must have routers and a modem that allow a secure connection to the Internet.
Most used models for data center design Which are the most efficient?
The most used designs to create a Data Center are the following:
It is called as a triangle design the structure that is made in a Data Center where the sides of the geometric figure are the links in the spanning tree between the server and two computers.
The design in this case of square loop is generated when two servers connect to the 2 access switches so that they can make a distribution through the aggregation method to connect to the Internet.
He loopless design is done when in the layer 2 there are no cycles so redundant links are kept in case there are connection errors. It can be done as a design of "OR" or of "U Inverted". Although this design is not used frequently due to the limitations they present due to not being able to extend the Red lan, it has its advantages when using STP.