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Databases: What is it, what is it for and what types are there?

Databases: What is it

Nowadays companies are characterized by handling a large amount of data of different types, whether they are personal, inventories, financial , among others. Because of this, databases have become a fundamental tool for what is the development of systems for organizations .

Being able to know, manipulate and manage all this information is very useful for carrying out endless activities , especially for business processes, such as create a startup or even create more advanced themes like Bid Data.

Therefore, the most advisable thing in these cases is to be able to have all this information in an orderly manner and with security levels where they can only be found and consulted by authorized persons. With all this in mind, here we explain a little more about what databases are and what is their main function .

What is a database and what is it for in computing?

A data base is one that is responsible for collecting all the data of a company and organizing them according to their category so that they can be searched and found more easily through the computer system .

Currently this tool is also used to develop business analysis , where the most modern ones have specific engines to extract complex reports according to the information stored.

You can also say that it is a structured collection of records or information that is stored within a computer system, which will facilitate the search for such information. For this tool to be really functional it is necessary that store large amounts of records , allow easy access to it, offer security and both the registry changes and the new one information can be done quickly.

In order to have an efficient system it is necessary to make use of programs that are capable of managing the query and the information stored in the database. In general, these programs are known as “Database Management System” or “DBMS”.

In addition to all these details, it is important that these tools are designed with a high logging capacity , as well as the ability to recover data in cases that arise failures in the hardware .

Features of a database How should it be an ideal?

Being able to manage all information correctly requires ideal processes that are carried out properly to achieve satisfactory results. The main idea at the time of developing a database is to be able to create a useful tool that facilitates the activities that are required to perform for the company or for personal use .

It is important to keep in mind that at the time of creating this tool we can have a greater strategic control on the records that we have, thus allowing have a better control at all times .

According to this, here we explain the main features of this system:

  • Databases are usually made up of several tables , which are referred to as relationships.
  • Each of these tables are a set of fields (columns) and records (rows).
  • The relationship between a parent table and a child table is made through the primary keys and foreign keys .
  • There cannot be two tables that have the same record and name, each one is completely unique.
  • Primary keys are the primary key of any record within a table. They are required to comply with data integrity.
  • Foreign keys must be placed in daughter tables , these contain the same values ​​as the primary registry key father . Through them, the relational forms are made.

What are the types and models of databases that exist?

Today there are different types of data where each of them has its own model , that is, the way they are structured . Among them we find what is the flat model, hierarchical model, relational model and the network model, among others, which we explain in detail below:

Flat base model

This model has two dimensions of data set , where there is a column of information and within that column we can find that each of the data will have to see with the column.

An example of this is a flat-base model that only has zip codes. Within the database should only be found a column where each of the rows within the column is a different zip code .

All this has a benefit and is that it allows all existing records to be stored in one place . It also offers a fairly simple structure that works very well for those small databases and that has minimum software and hardware requirements . Therefore, they are ideal for small businesses .

Hierarchical model

This model mainly resembles what is the structure of a tree, such as Microsoft Windows is responsible for organizing all stored folders and files in the system. Therefore, in this model each link is added in order to keep the data organized in a particular order and on the same list level.

An example of this hierarchical model is related to sales, where sales of each day can be included by separate files . But, nested to this file you will find all the sales that were made that day.

Modelo jerárquica

This whole model has some benefits for its users , this is mainly because it offers one-to-one relationships, thus offering an easy-to-understand structure, even for those who don’t They are programmers . Therefore, once the first record has been found it is not necessary to perform a scan in the index. Since each of the records will send you to the next record .

This is because all the information is stored in a common base , this makes easier to see . In case you need to make modifications you can simply do replacing the existing data with the new .

Network models

Network models are defining characteristics of when are stored records that contain a link from other records , what is known as a network. Therefore, these networks may contain a variety of different types of information, be it disk node, address or numbers .

Modelos de red

Like the previous model , the components of this network base may vary depending on the relationship between father and son . In this way, it has a greater ability to maintain data than in the hierarchical model .

In this case there is always a link between a father and a child , so you always maintain the integrity of the information . In addition, spending less time to keep records improves performance and efficiency .

Relational model

This model is currently the most popular in this system, and it stands out for being an extremely powerful tool compared to the others. This is how it offers great advantages when it comes to store information and to access it easily and quickly.

This relational model is organized in form of tables, where information can be accessed or added without reorganizing the tables . In addition, a table can have a large number of records where each of them can have many fields. Sometimes these pictures are usually called relation.

An example of this can be a company that has a base called “Customer orders”, within this base you must find different tables where all customer orders are , each of this table may include customer information such as name, address, contact, among others.

There must also be another table called relationships, this is related to those customers who already have a record, that is to say that they have bought previously, these contain form of payment, articles, description of the article , among others.

It is important to mention that each of these fields has a own primary key, being the only field that makes it easy to identify a record. In addition , this will allow you to restrict user data, either to make them visible or modify them , thus offering greater security.

Object oriented model

As the name implies, it is related to the objects used in object-oriented programming . The database works well with object-oriented languages ​​such as Java, Smalltalk, Perl, C ++, among others. In the case that the objects are similar they are grouped into a single class and each of the objects of a particular class is called instance .

These classes allow the programmer to define the data that is not included in the system. Given that a class is what defines what data the system needs >. This prevents information corruption and increases security in the process .

Multidimensional Model

This model is directly related to what is the online analytical processing that forms part of business intelligence and information storage. These processes Online analytics are those that facilitate the visualization of data from different points of view. They are used to be able to access multidimensional data .

This data can be visualized through cubes that represent the different dimensions available. In addition, this allows to combine the advantages of relational and hierarchical databases . Responding quickly to queries due to optimized storage and multidimensional indexing .

Object-relational Model

In this case we present what is a relational database combined with object-oriented concepts , such as classes, inheritance and polymorphism . One of the main advantages of this is that it allows you to easily obtain the data through polymorphism , as well as being able to reuse the information more easily.

It also allows to store large amounts of information within classes. In addition, it offers many solutions for relational databases in the cloud , what it has become is a very good alternative for services that are hosted in the cloud .

Examples of databases that you can copy for your company

Today there are many examples of this system which we can use to copy them in our companies , this can help us achieve results with very optimal yields .

Therefore, some of the examples we find are the following:

  • Personal files: These are those written sets of life of an author, researcher or intellectual that are stored in a file. This allows them to be consulted without placing the original document or document in risk.
  • Telephone directories: They were known as books that used to have a large number of telephone numbers that were related to companies , private businesses, homes, hospitals , among others, all this in order to offer the users those services they needed . A somewhat uncomfortable data base, but very complete.
  • Transaction log: Other examples found are the records of calls made with the smartphone, the consumptions of the credit or debit card or any other type of commercial transactions , where each of them generates a record set that will be sent to the database of the corresponding company.
  • Medical history: Usually, when you see a doctor, he usually creates a record of his patients , this allows him to review the patient record and know what treatment he has received and what kind of diseases he has presented.

  • Public libraries : This can be said to be one of the clearest examples that we can find, since here you will find thousands of records belonging to each writer or book title, this will let you know if it is available or not. In addition, it allows to know how many copies of the book exist and thus ensure that all are in operation.

What programs can I use to create databases?

There are currently a large number of programs available on the web for database creation . However, it is important that we use software that is safe and reliable, especially because it is a necessary tool for what is the operation of a company or personal business .

Thanks to these programs it has become possible to access a large amount of information in a very simple way. Taking this into account, then we present the most reliable programs and sure they exist today and which you can start using.

Microsoft Access

Microsoft Access

One of the most popular programs today for creating these records in the Windows operating system. It gives you the ability to create a database > where you will be able to organize and have at hand each of your information. Access stands out from the competition for its ease of use, where you can create graphics and find the information you need in a few steps.

Among the main advantages offered by this software we find that it is oriented for those users who have little knowledge of what databases are, for this it offers basic and simple tools of use. All this gives you the ability to create your own records without major complications .



SQL or Structured Query Language is a software dedicated to what is the language of data definition thus allowing to manage and retrieve stored information within the relational database management systems .

These steps are those that are responsible for joining some data saved in the different tables, while SQL is more easily managed. In addition, it offers another function that is Define data, view definition and data manipulation languages.

This program can be used by both novice users and experts in the area of ​​programmers, where it offers tools ranging from the most basic to the most advanced.

Visual FoxPro

Visual FoxPro

Other of the programs that we find available are Visual FoxPro, it has a series of features that have led it to be among one of the softwares most popular for what is the creation of information records . This is how you can create all kinds of databases where you use the integration of other servers and SQL statements.

This program has been designed primarily for program designers who already have the basic tools so that they can make use of each of the attributes offered by this program. Therefore, the user will be able to program and customize their databases with all their files , be they documents, videos, images, files among others.




Finally we present this program, which is designed for what is the management of open source and relational databases . Therefore, with it you can start to create information records and in that way start having a bigger organization with each of the information you manage within your company.

MySQL stands out mainly for offering one of the fastest speeds of all programs of this type, being able to support a lot of types of data in each of the columns . In addition, it gives you the possibility to work with different platforms and operating systems , being very flexible, easy to configure and install.

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